In thethe term denotes a tribe, whose members believed in a shared ancestry. The janas were headed by a king. The samiti was a common assembly of the jana members, and had the power to elect or dethrone the king. The sabha was a smaller assembly of wise elders, who advised the king. The janas were originally semi-nomadic communities, but gradually came to be associated with specific territories as they usha kannada janapada less mobile. Various kulas clans developed within the jana, each with its own chief. Gradually, the necessities of defence and warfare prompted the janas to form military groupings headed by usha kannada janapada warriors. This model ultimately evolved into the establishment of political units known as the janapadas. While some of the janas evolved into their own janapadas, others appear to have mixed together to form a common Janapada. According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the janapada suggests that it was a fusion usha kannada janapada five pancha janas. Some janas such as Aja usha kannada janapada Mutiba mentioned in the earliest texts do not find a mention in the later texts. Misra theorizes that these smaller janas were conquered by and assimilated into the larger janas. Their disestablishment can be attributed to the rise of imperial powers such as within India, as well as foreign invasions such as those by the and the in the north-western South Asia. The head of a kingdom was called a rajan or king. A chief purohita or priest and a senani or commander of the army who would assist the king. There were also two other political bodies: the sabhathought to be a council of elders and the samitia general assembly of the entire people. Sometimes, large forests, which were larger than the kingdoms themselves, formed their boundaries as was the case ofthe NaimishaAranyam between Panchala and kingdoms. Mountain ranges like Himalaya, VindhyaAchala and SahyaAdri also formed their boundaries. The remains of this city has been discovered in. Some kingdoms possessed a main city that served as its capital. For example, the capital of Pandava's Kingdom was and the Kaurava's Kingdom was. Apart from the main city or capital, where the palace of the ruling king was situated, there were small towns and villages spread throughout the kingdom, from which tax was collected by officers appointed by the king. What the king offered in return was protection from attack by other kings and robber tribes, as well as from invading foreign nomadic tribes. The king also enforced law and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty. Based on literary references, historians have theorized that the Janapadas were administered by the following assemblies in addition to the king: Sabha Council An assembly more akin to a council of qualified members or elders mostly men who advised the king and performed judicial functions. In the ganas or republican Janapadas called Gana-Rajya with no kings, the council of elders also handled administration. Paura Sabha Executive Council Paura was the assembly of the capital city puraand handled municipal administration. Samiti General Assembly A samiti generally consisted of all adults of the republic or the city-state. A samiti was congregated when a matter of importance had to be communicated to the entire city-state. A samiti was also held at the time of festivals to plan, raise revenue and conduct the celebrations. Janapada The Janapada assembly represented the rest of the Janapada, possibly the villages, which were administered by a Gramini. The existence of Paura and Janapada itself is a controversial matter. Indian nationalist historians such as have argued that the existence of such assemblies is evidence of prevalence of democracy in ancient India. Misra notes that the contemporary society was divided into the four besides the outcastesand the Kshatriya ruling class had all the political rights. Not all the citizens in a janapada had political rights. Based on Gautama's Dharmasutra, Jayaswal theorized that usha kannada janapada low-caste could be members of the Paura assembly. Jayaswal also argued that the members of the supposed Paura-Janapada assembly acted as counselors to the king, and made other important decisions such as imposing taxes in times of emergency. Once again, Altekar argued that these conclusions are based on misinterpretations of the literary evidence. There was no border security for a kingdom and border disputes were very rare. One king might conduct a military campaign often designated as Digvijaya meaning victory over all the directions and defeat another king in a battle, lasting for a day. The defeated king would acknowledge the supremacy of the victorious king. The defeated king might sometimes be asked to give a tribute to the victorious king. Such tribute would be collected only once, not on a periodic basis. The defeated king, in most cases, would be free to rule his own kingdom, without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. There was no annexation of one kingdom by another. Often a military general conducted usha kannada janapada campaigns on behalf of his king. A military campaign and tribute collection was often associated with a great sacrifice like or conducted in the kingdom of the campaigning king. The defeated king also was invited to attend these sacrifice ceremonies, as a friend and ally. The clan of Kings was very successful in governing throughout North India with their numerous kingdoms, which were formed after each successive generation. Similarly, the clan of kings formed numerous kingdoms in Central India. Parts of western India were dominated by tribes who had a slightly different culture, considered non-Vedic by the mainstream prevailing in the and Panchala kingdoms. Similarly, there were some tribes in the usha kannada janapada regions of India considered to be in this category. Tribes with non-Vedic culture — especially those of barbaric nature — were collectively termed as. Very little was mentioned in the ancient literature about the kingdoms to the North, beyond the. Unlike the Puranas, the Mahabharata does not specify any geographical divisions of ancient India, but does support the classification of certain janapadas as southern or northern.